Project Update: Away from the Western Front

Project Update: Away from the Western Front

Copy of First World War postcard published by ‘The Cairo Postcard Trust’, sent home to England (© Lyn Edmonds)

A National Music project and a Creative Writing Competition are part of the Heritage Lottery funded First World War ‘Away from the Western Front’ centenary programme. This aims to increase understanding of what made the conflict into a World War and raise awareness of the often overlooked campaigns in the Balkans, Egypt, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Africa, Italy and elsewhere.

The Creative Writing Competition invites entries from all age groups. These can be poems or short stories, the main criterion is that they must be inspired by the First World War away from the Western Front.

The winner of each category will receive a £50 book token, with additional prizes for runners up. The deadline for entries is 14th September 2018.

Ideas for possible topics, a flyer and an entry form can all be found on the website: https://awayfromthewesternfront.org/projects/creative-writing-competition/

Recruits in Jamaica 1916 © IWM (Q 52423).jpg (This item is available to be shared and re-used under the terms of the IWM Non Commercial Licence)

The Away from the Western Front National Music Project invites community choirs, musicians, singers and brass bands to perform its new First World War song ‘No Parades’, which has been inspired by the experience of West Indian men who fought in the First World War.

Two battalions of the British West Indies Regiment served in Palestine and Egypt, and at the end of the war they joined the rest of the Regiment in the Italian port of Taranto. After poor treatment by their British officers the soldiers mutinied, demanding equal pay and conditions to the white troops they had served beside for four years. The mutineers were punished and the Regiment disbanded, sent home under guard and barred from the victory parades. The song continues the story:

From the islands and mainland we came

To fight and to show our allegiance

But returned to our homelands in shame

While for some there’ll be honour and glory

The West Indian will have no parades

Musicians, community choirs and brass bands can join the project in two different ways. They can record their performances of ‘No Parades’ by using the score and lyrics freely provided or use the song and accompanying information on the ‘Away from the Western Front’ website to inspire their own compositions. The project will produce a CD of the best performances, as well as promoting the performances through the website and social media.

For more information about how to participate in this exciting project and to listen to a demo of the song please visit https://awayfromthewesternfront.org/projects/national-music-project/ or contact info@awayfromthewesternfront.org

Personal Reflections on the Battle of Saragarhi

Kiran Sahota is a longstanding community partner of the Centre for Hidden Histories. In this guest post, she reflects on how her work on the First World War has inspired her to examine another aspect of history.

Filmmaker Jay Singh Sohal at the Haughton plaque in Uppingham

I recently attended a special screening of Saragarhi: The True Story, in London on the 120th anniversary of the titular battle. The film was made by Captain Jay Singh Sohal who wanted to tell the story of what happened during the battle.

I was not sure what to expect other than being excited to learn about a history I was not familiar with. While my experience of researching Indian military history was limited, my love for learning about this subject was increasing and I wanted to know more about the twenty-one Sikh men who fought with such courage.

Watching the film, I was drawn to the brave sacrifices these men made and how important it is that we learn their story. Furthermore, it was a fascinating insight into a history I did not know existed. My previous research was about Indian soldiers in the First World War and I had assumed that that was the first time that Indian soldiers fought. The film taught me that Indian soldiers took part in battles of which few people are aware.

The battle took place on 12th September 1897. Twenty-one soldiers of the 36th Sikhs (now the 4th battalion of the Sikh Regiment) were attacked by 10,000 Afghan tribesmen in the North-West Frontier Province, which is now named Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and part of Pakistan. The British had built a series of forts. Two of the forts, Fort Lockhart and Fort Gulistan, were not visible to each other meaning that remote communication was not possible. Saragarhi was therefore created in between as a heliographic communication post. The Afghans were determined to seize control through sheer weight of number.

Sepoy Gurmukh Singh sent signal to the Colonel John Haughton, Commandant of the 36th Sikhs, that they were under attack but Haughton replied that it was impossible for him to send help. The detachment leader, Havildar Ishar Singh, rather than surrender, led his soldiers to fight to the death. The ensuing battle lasted ten hours. As Sepoy Grumukh was dying it is believed that he yelled out a Sikh battle cry “Bole So Nihal, Sat Sri Akal” which translates to “One will be blessed, who says that God is the ultimate truth”. Each of the 21 Sikhs who sacrificed their lives were awarded the Indian Order of Merit, which was the highest gallantry award which an Indian soldier could receive at the time. The fort was retaken on 14th September, by intensive artillery.

Some of the actors from the film

The Battle of Saragarhi might be an untold story to some, but this battle is definitely not forgotten. The film depicts visits to memorial Saragarhi Gurudwaras in India that were dedicated to the men who died. There is one in Amritsar, located near the Golden Temple, at which the names of the twenty one are engraved onto the walls, highlighting their bravery. This Gurudwara is relatively unknown and many people pass it without knowing its significance. There is also a Saragarhi Gurudwara in Ferozepur. This Gurudwara, which was opened in 1904, is surrounded by cannons and is also engraved with the names of the soldiers. The battle is also commemorated by the armed forces in the UK every year on its anniversary.

Learning this history has been informative, especially for someone from a Sikh background. As a British Indian Sikh woman, I have found a new understanding how these men took pride in the religion and culture and have been given much to think about on the determination that these Sikh men had to protect the land and with such pride and courage.

At the end of the screening Jay took time for question and answers session that allowed to speak in depth about the reason this was an important history to highlight. I really enjoyed the screening and having the opportunity to learn more about the history left in India regarding these soldiers.

The film is now available to buy, as is Jay Singh Sohal’s book, Saragarhi: The Forgotten Battle. Screenings of the film are currently taking place. If you are interested in having a screening get in touch with Jay at dothyphen1@gmail.com and you can follow him on Twitter @sikhsatwar

The Great Escape – from Sutton Bonington!

The Centre’s Principal Investigator, Professor John Beckett, uncovers the story of a daring escape from Sutton Bonington, today one of the University of Nottingham’s UK campuses. 

Main Building, Sutton Bonington

During the centenary commemorations of the First World War, The Times is running a daily column reprinting a war-related activity first covered one hundred years ago. On 26 September 2017 it reproduced a story from 26 September 1917 headed ‘Escape of 23 War Prisoners’. It was about the escape of German officers from the internment camp at Sutton Bonington.

The Times reported the story with a certain sardonic humour. The German POWs had dug a tunnel and collected supplies ready for the break out, but having escaped they then struggled to put much distance between themselves and the camp. Six of them were caught near Nottingham, two were found asleep in a wood ‘worn out by their walk’, and three were arrested when they aroused suspicion by asking the way to the nearest railway station. Captain Muller was caught when schoolchildren found him blackberrying in Tollerton woods, six miles from the camp. Two more were found in East Leake ‘playing at cards while crouching beneath a hedge’.

These two men do not seem to have been trying all that hard to make their way back home, and apparently confessed the whole story. The escapees had tunnelled a distance of 50 yards over a three months period. Having escaped they divided into groups of four and started out on different routes towards the coast ‘where they hoped to get away by tramp steamers’.

Eighteen of those who escaped had been recaptured by 28 September 1917, and four more were taken at Chesterfield by Derby police on 30 September.

The story is, of course, well known. The Midland Agricultural College had been preparing to move from its premises in Kingston on Soar to the main building and men’s hostel newly built at Sutton Bonington. That building had a date stone of 1915. Before the move could take place the buildings were taken over to house German officers, who were generally well treated when they were captured as prisoners of war. In 1915 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle complained that they were quartered well away from ordinary soldiers, often in country houses or in the officers’ quarters of barracks. These were comfortably furnished, and servants were found for them from among the soldiers held as POWs. One of the prisoners, named in The Times, Captain Muller, had been in command of the Emden, a German raiding cruiser which had bombarded Madras in September 1914, and was subsequently sunk off the Cocos Islands on 9 November.

 

Photograph, 3 German Officer prisoners, Sutton Bonington campus, c.1917-1918

When the Sutton Bonington escape was reported, special constables were called out ‘and every measure was taken to apprehend the escaped prisoners’. With night patrols and road blocks, as well as special constables at strategic points, the prisoners were prevented from making much headway.

Lieutenants J. Stadelfaauer and P. Bastgem were recaptured in Derby after a week on the run – perhaps an inappropriate term since they had travelled just twelve miles from Sutton Bonington. Three men caught in West Bridgford on 25 September 1917 had among their possessions sardines, milk, bacon, ham, cheese, prunes, sausages, biscuits and dried toast. They might not have got far in their search for a packet boat to take them to Germany, but they were not going to starve. In fact, in the course of the First World War, only one German officer made it back home.

‘Away from the Western Front’ invites community choirs, musicians, singers and brass bands to perform its new First World War song ‘No Parades’

West Indians in the First World War (IWM Q 52423)

With ‘Pack Up Your Troubles’ and ‘It’s a Long Way to Tipperary’ we all know songs which grew out of the First World War. Now, Away from the Western Front, a National Lottery-funded project is adding a new song to the collection, but with a very different angle. Choirs, musicians, singers and brass bands are all invited to contribute performances of this new song to the First World War ‘Away from the Western Front’ project. ‘No Parades’, composed by Chris Hoban who has written for acclaimed folk band ‘Show of Hands’, has been inspired by the experience of West Indian men who fought in the First World War.

Two battalions of the British West Indies Regiment served in Palestine and Egypt, and at the end of the war they joined the rest of the Regiment in the Italian port of Taranto. After poor treatment by their British officers the soldiers mutinied, demanding equal pay and conditions to the white troops they had served beside for four years. The mutineers were punished and the Regiment disbanded, sent home under guard and barred from the victory parades. The song continues the story:

From the islands and mainland we came
To fight and to show our allegiance
But returned to our homelands in shame
While for some there’ll be honour and glory
The West Indian will have no parades

Musicians, community choirs and brass bands can join the project in two different ways. They can record their performances of ‘No Parades’ by using the score and lyrics provided or use the song and accompanying information on the ‘Away from the Western Front’ website to inspire their own compositions and submit those. The project will produce a CD of the best performances, as well as promoting the performances through the website and social media.

The song has been written in several formats including mixed choir, solo voice with piano, male voice choir and brass band, and also has a version in the style of ‘Mento’, a forerunner of Calypso and Reggae. It forms the centrepiece of an exciting national music project which aims to highlight the often overlooked history of the wider First World War.

Robin Clutterbuck, the project’s National Coordinator said: “Colonial troops played a very big part in the campaigns away from the Western Front, in Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), East Africa and the Balkans. The experience of West Indian men was similar to that of Indians and black Africans, and for some led to feelings of anger and disappointment after the war due to the way they were treated once their assistance was no longer required”.

The music project is part of the major national ‘Away from the Western Front’ project, which aims to increase understanding of what made the conflict into a World War. Local and regional partners in Devon, Lancashire, Berkshire, Sussex and London are studying different aspects of the wider war. Local museums and National Trust properties in these areas are working with community groups, youth groups and schools with funding from the HLF grant to research the lives and stories of those who served in these far away campaigns. Those stories are being brought to life through engaging creative outputs, drama, film, art and music, specifically designed to raise public awareness of the First World War away from the Western Front.

For more information about how to participate in this exciting project and to listen to our demo of the song please visit https://awayfromthewesternfront.org/projects/national-music-project/ or contact info@awayfromthewesternfront.org

Event review: The Sherwood Foresters in Dublin, Easter Week 1916

Event review: The Sherwood Foresters in Dublin, Easter Week 1916

Captain Christian “Freddie” Dietrichsen

The Sherwood Foresters in Dublin, Easter Week 1916

Nottingham Lakeside 7 October 2017

The Centre for Hidden Histories has provided financial support for a public engagement partnership examining the Easter Rising in Dublin in 1916 and, in particular, the role of the 7th and 8th Reserve Battalion Sherwood Foresters. The battalion was mainly made up of young working-class men from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire.

The subject has been researched in some detail by Professor James Moran of the University of Nottingham’s School of English, and he has also forged the public engagement programme with Hall Park Academy, Eastwood. Jim Moran has worked on the project with Professor Fintan Cullen of the University’s Department of History of Art. Fintan is from Dublin.

The Sherwood Foresters who were sent to Dublin had little idea of what they were walking into, and the battalion suffered the greatest casualties of all the British regiments involved in the insurrection. The soldiers were also made to participate in the firing squads that executed the rebel leaders. Jim and Fintan have researched the story of what happened both during Easter week and immediately afterwards when they were moved to Galway. They used archival material to explore how, at the time of the rebellion, the Sherwood Foresters believed that they would be remembered.

Much of the research was embedded in a specially devised performance at Lakeside by year 10 students from Hall Park Academy in Eastwood. The intention was to recover the voices of the soldiers from Nottinghamshire, and the play used the words of the soldiers, their opponents, and Eastwood’s most celebrated son D.H. Lawrence who, the audience was reminded, was not a conscientious objector but was found (on three occasions) to be unfit to serve on the front line.

Jim Moran introduced the play, in order to set the scene for the performance. The Second Battalion of the Notts and Derbyshire Regiment, better known as the ‘Sherwood Foresters’, were the last of the 1914-1918 war volunteers. They went to war to defeat the Germans but soon found themselves in combat on the streets of Dublin. The Foresters arrived in the Irish capital on 26 April 1916. They marched from Kingstown port (now Dun Laoghaire) into the city. The battalion was divided into two. Two thousand troops were sent into the city along the tree-lined Northumberland Road, cheered on by many of the citizens of Dublin – although some of the soldiers appear to have thought they were in France and were surprised to be greeted by cheering crowds speaking in English rather than French!

Far from having an easy ride against what they had been assured was an ill-disciplined and poorly trained rebel force, they found themselves up against well organised fighters, and within hours of their arrival more than 220 Foresters had been killed or wounded by just 17 men of the Irish Volunteers.

The Foresters had received just 12 weeks training, and they were ill-prepared for combat; indeed, some of the men had not even learned to fire a rifle. Their machine guns and hand grenades had been left on the dockside in Liverpool. The British military leaders believed that a show of force would be enough to end the uprising. It was a serious miscalculation.

The letter to Capt. Dietrichsen from his children

One of the officers leading the men was Nottingham barrister Christian “Freddie” Dietrichsen, a Captain in the regiment. Before the war, Dietrichsen – who was of Danish extraction, hence the surname – had married an Irish women, Beatrice Mitchell. They settled in Nottingham’s Park estate but with the outbreak of the war Freddie, fearing the possible impact of Zeppelin raids, sent his wife and children to Watford. Unbeknown to Freddie, Beatrice decided this was still too close to the action, and moved with her children to Dublin. They were among the crowd waving flags on Northumberland Avenue when Freddie marched past. He was surprised, because he thought they were in Watford, and they were surprised because they thought he was in France. The march into Dublin stopped briefly for Freddie to kiss his wife and children before carrying on. Shortly afterwards he was killed by a sniper’s bullet. In his jacket pocket were letters to him from his children, and a letter he had written but not sent, to his wife.

All of this was recounted in the Hall Park Academy’s performance at Lakeside, together with appropriate quotations from Lawrence. For the pupils, this was their first opportunity to perform on a public stage, for the parents it was an opportunity to be proud of their offspring, and for the Centre for Hidden Histories and Jim Moran it was an opportunity to find out more about a First World War event which the British army chose (presumably from embarrassment at having underestimated the Irish rebels) to play down. But, first and foremost, congratulations to the pupils of Hall Park Academy.